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Security Glossary

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Term Definition
DAT files
Also known as a data file, these files are used to update software programs, sent to users via the Internet. .DAT files contain up-to-date virus signatures and other information antivirus products use to protect your computer against virus attacks. .DAT files are also known as detection definition files and signatures.
A broad term to describe information that has been translated into a form that is more convenient to move or process.
A change made to the home page or other key pages of a website by an unauthorized individual or process, usually unknown to the website owner.
Default password
The password on a system when it is first delivered or installed.
Denial of service (DoS)
An attack specifically designed to prevent a system from functioning properly as well as denying access to the system by authorized users. Hackers can cause denial-of-service attacks by destroying or modifying data or by overloading the system's servers until service to authorized users is delayed or prevented.
Dialers include software programs that redirect Internet connections to a party other than the user's default ISP and are designed to run up additional connection charges for a content provider, vendor, or other third party.
Dictionary attack
Method of breaking into a password-protected computer, mobile device, or online account by entering every word in a dictionary as a password.
Distributed denial of service (DDos)
A type of denial-of-service (DoS) attack in which more than one traffic generator directs traffic to a targeted URL. Traffic-generating programs are called agents, and the controlling program is the master. DoS agents receive instruction from a master to carry out an attack, which is designed to disable or shut down the targeted URL.
Domain name
This is a name that identifies a website; for example, mcafee.com is the domain name of McAfee's website. Each domain name is associated with an IP address. Domain names are used in URLs to identify particular web pages.
This is the process in which data is sent to your computer. Whenever you receive information from the Internet, you are downloading it to your computer. For example, you may have to download an update for your web browser. The opposite of this process, is sending information to another computer is called uploading.
Drive-by download
A program that is automatically downloaded to your computer without your consent or even your knowledge. It can install malware or potentially unwanted programs merely by your viewing an email or website.
This is an executable file, created specifically to introduce a virus, worm, or Trojan on a computer system.

DSGET.exe (installable option either via RSAT /AD DS or adminpack.msi)

View active directory objects.

Dumpster diving
The practice of sifting through commercial or residential trash in the hopes of finding information to steal or commit fraud.