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Security Glossary

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Pronounced like cash, a cache stores recently used information in a place where it can be accessed extremely fast. Computers have a disk cache; this stores information that the user has recently read from the hard disk. Web browsers also use a cache to store the pages, images, and URLs of recently visited websites on the user's hard drive. When users visit web pages that they have been to recently, the pages and images don't have to be downloaded again.

A technique used by thieves to verify the validity of stolen card data. The thief will use the card information on a website that has real-time transaction processing. If the transaction is processed successfully then the thief knows the card is still good. The purchase is usually for a small amount to avoid using the card's limit and to avoid attracting the attention of the card owner.
Cellular network
A radio network that is distributed over land areas called cells. Each cell is associated with a radio transceiver, when the cells are joined together they can provide radio coverage over a wide geographic area allowing mobile phones to communicate with each other.
Child identity theft
When a thief steals the identities of children to use for fraudulent financial transactions. It can take years before the theft is discovered, often the victims discover this when they engage in their first financial transactions. The dangers associated with child identity theft include damaged credit and income tax liability.
Cloud computing
Cloud computing refers to applications and services that are offered over the Internet. These services are offered from data centers around the world that collectively are referred to as the cloud.
Contactless payment
A noncash payment transaction that doesn't need a physical connection between the payment device, which can be a number of things ranging from traditional plastic cards to mobile phones, and the physical point-of-sale terminal (for example, a cash register).
Small amounts of data generated by a website and saved by your web browser. Websites use cookies to identify users who revisit their sites, and are most commonly used to store login information for a specific site. When a server receives a browser request that includes a cookie, the server can use the information stored in the cookie to customize the website for the user. Whenever a user checks the box Remember me on this computer, the website will generate a login cookie once the user successfully logs in. Each time users revisit the site, they may only need to enter their password or may not need to login at all. Cookies can be used to gather more information about a user than would be possible without them.
Malicious software such as viruses, Trojan horses, spyware, and other programs used to commit crimes on the Internet including identity theft and fraud.
Criminal identity theft
When a criminal fraudulently identifies himself to police as another individual at the point of arrest. In some cases criminals have previously obtained state-issued identity documents using credentials stolen from others, or have simply presented fake identification.
Bullying that takes place in cyberspace. This includes the Internet and mobile phone communication. It may involve harassing, threatening, embarrassing, or humiliating someone online.
A criminal activity done using computers and the Internet. This can take many shapes and forms, such as downloading illegal music files to stealing money from online bank accounts. Cybercrime can also include nonmonetary offenses, such as creating and distributing viruses. One of the most prominent cybercrime offenses is when cybercriminals use the Internet to steal personal information from others and commit identity theft.
Cybercriminals are hackers, crackers, and other malicious users who use the Internet to commit crimes such as identity theft, PC hijacking, illegal spamming, phishing and pharming, and other types of fraud.
Cybergangs are groups of hackers, crackers, and other cybercriminals that pool their resources to commit crimes on the Internet. Organized crime is often involved in cybergang activity.
Registering, trafficking in, or using a domain name with malicious intent to profit from the goodwill of a trademark or brand name belonging to someone else. The cybersquatter then offers to sell the domain to the person or company who owns a trademark contained within the name at an inflated price. Cybersquatters also sometimes register variations of popular trademarked names as a way of distributing their malware.